Agricultural mechanization helps in increasing production, productivity and profitability in agriculture. Increasing agricultural operating income is not only an important step in improving agricultural work for farmers in the new era, but is also a powerful way to promote rural revitalization.

Agricultural machinery, also known as agricultural tech, is an essential tool for improving agricultural production. It helps farmers to grow more crops in less time and with greater efficiency. It can include anything from tractors and harvesters to animal feed mixers or field-wide weed removers.

Aside from traditional tools like rakes and shovels, modern farm machines have multiple functions that make harvesting fields easier. They range from automated sorting and conveyor systems to self-driving vehicles that monitor and optimize plant processes. Furthermore, some cutting-edge models feature advanced sensing technology that lets farmers detect crop ripeness and soil fertility levels much more accurately than through manual inspection.

Traditionally, agriculture relied upon manpower and animal labor alone, requiring many days of work to till and plant, to tend to crops and livestock and to harvest. Over the course of the 20th century, mechanization has taken place throughout the industry; Agricultural mechanization has brought along with it a number of benefits.

  • Increase in area under cultivation:

Mechanization can help in increasing the area under cultivation; a large amount of land can be cultivated in lesser amounts of time and efforts. Mechanization can help in removing bottlenecks and making efficient use of time.

  • Increases Efficiency and Per Man Productivity:  

Efficiency is a measure of how much work or energy is conserved in a process. Human and animal operations cannot match the power of machine, Mechanization increases production per worker and resulting in increased efficiency.

  • Mechanization Increases Yield:

Agricultural mechanization has primarily replaced subsistence farming increasing productivity and crop yields. In subsistence farming, farmers produce only enough food to feed themselves or their families. Meanwhile, mechanization has enabled commercial farmers to produce far more food for profit.

  • Mechanization reduces Cost:

Mechanization enables efficient use of inputs including water, seeds, pesticides and fertilizers. It also reduces spoilage and harvest losses which eventually results into reducing the cost.

  • Reduces dependency on animals:

Maintenance cost, efforts and time for animals remains the same irrespective of working or non-working hours. Animals have to be fed whether they are doing work or not. Whereas maintenance cost, time and efforts required for idle machines are comparatively much lesser.

  • Increases Farm Income

Agricultural mechanization provides more monetary gain for large and small farms and reduces the time needed to pay laborers. Crop yields are higher with machinery, thus increasing farm profits. Lastly, it adds a level of sophistication to farms—transforming them from local businesses to organizations that can compete on a global scale.

Type of Machinery According to Use

A diverse range of machines is available, each designed for specific purposes.

Machinery Used for Soil Cultivation

  • Cultivator – A machine used to mix and pulverize soil before planting.
  • Plough – Used to turn over the top layer of soil, bring fresh nutrients to the surface, and prepare the soil for planting.
  • Rotary tiller – A machine that breaks up hard soil and creates a smooth and even seedbed
  • Harrows – Tools used to level, smooth, or loosen the soil.

Machinery Used for Planting

  • Seed drill – A machine that allows you to sow seeds in furrows at an even depth and rate. Soil is not required for it to work.
  • Broadcast seeder – Otherwise known as a spreader or fertilizer spreader, is commonly used for agricultural purposes such as spreading seed, lime, or fertilizer.
  • Seed cum fertilizer drill – Distributes the fertilizer uniformly on the ground.

Farm Machinery Types Used for Irrigation

  • Irrigation equipment – Includes pumps, sprinklers, and other automated systems for watering crops.
  • Centre irrigation – Used for large-scale farming operations, delivers water from the center of a field.

Machinery Used for Fertilizing and Pest Control

  • Manure spreader – Also known as a muck spreader or honey wagon, this agricultural machine spreads manure over a field to fertilize it.
  • Slurry tank – A trailer with a pump and tank that can mix manure and water, creating an efficient fertilizer for fields.
  • Sprayer – A tool that applies herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers to crops.

Harvesting and Threshing Equipment

  • Combine harvester – A machine that shakes the grain off the stalk, cleans it, and stores it.
  • Sickle – An agricultural tool used for harvesting grain crops or cutting grass for hay.
  • Mower – A machine used to cut crops or grasses, operated manually by animal power or motor.
  • Reaper – A machine used to harvest cereal crops near the ground. These machines are either operated by a power tiller or tractor.
  • Grain harvesting machine – Used to harvest grains, edible brans, or fruit seeds from cereal crops.
  • Root crop harvesting machine – Used to harvest crops such as potatoes, carrots, onions, and beets.
  • Threshers – Used to separate the grain from stalks and husks.
  • Vegetable harvesting machine – Used to harvest vegetables from the ground.